During the early nineties, the state-owned Israel Military Industries (IMI) company developed a conventional combat pistol, the Jericho 941. This was actually an international effort, since the design of the pistol was based on the Italian Tanfoglio system, itself a well-made clone of the Czechoslovak Cz-75 pistol. The original model index, the ‘941’, came from the two calibers initially available in this pistol, the ubiquitous 9mm Luger (9x19) and the new .41AE, which was developed in 1986 by the American company Action Arms. This cartridge, which was ballistically similar to more ‘modern’ .40 S&W, was designed to be used in 9mm pistols with minimal modifications (new barrel and return spring, and possibly new magazine), and thus had a rebated rim of the same diameter as the 9mm cartridge. Early Jericho pistols were often shipped with two sets of barrels and springs, one in 9mm and another in .41AE. The .41 was good cartridge, by no means inferior to the rival .40 S&W, but it lacked one essential feature – strong marketing support. Because of the failure to sell this caliber to the public, the .41AE has been dropped from Jericho line and replaced by more successful .40 S&W chambering, and, later on, complemented with .45ACP. Jericho pistols are widely exported from Israel, and also used by Israeli private security and police forces.