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Graphene is an atomic-scale honeycomb lattice made of carbon atoms. It has the basic structural elements of graphite, carbon nanotubes and fullerenes. In short 'Graphene' is the super thin, super strong, transparent, conductive and self-repairing material is poised to revolutionize the future.
Graphene is a crystalline allotrope of carbon with 2-dimensional properties. Its carbon atoms are densely packed in a regular atomic-scale chicken wire (hexagonal) pattern.
Each atom has four bonds, one bond with each of its three neighbors and one -bond that is oriented out of plane.
Graphene's hexagonal lattice can be regarded as two interleaving triangular lattices. This perspective was successfully used to calculate the band structure for a single graphite layer using a tight-binding approximation.
Graphene's stability is due to its tightly packed carbon atoms.
Graphene sheets in solid form usually show evidence in diffraction for graphite's layering. This is true of some single-walled nanostructures. However, unlayered graphene with only rings has been found in the core of presolar graphite onions. TEM studies show faceting at defects in flat graphene sheets and suggest a role for two-dimensional crystallization from a melt.
Graphene can self-repair holes in its sheets, when exposed to molecules containing carbon, such as hydrocarbons. Bombarded with pure carbon atoms, the atoms perfectly align into hexagons, completely filling the holes.