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The Flakpanzer IV 'Wirbelwind' (Whirlwind in German) was a self-propelled anti-aircraft gun based on tue Panzer IV tank. It was developed in 1944 as a successor to the earlier self-propelled anti-aircraft gun Moebelwagen. In the first years of the war, the Wehrmacht had less interest in developing self-propelled anti-aircraft guns, but as the Allies developed air superiority, the need for more mobile and better-armed self-propelled anti-aircraft guns increased. The Panzer IV's turret was removed and replaced with an open-top, nine-sided turret which housed a quadruple 2cm Flakvierling 38L. A closed-top design would have been preferable, but this was not possible due to the heavy smoke generated by the four anti-aircraft guns