Bacteriophage T4 is a virus with well-known genetics, structure, and biology. Such techniques as X-ray crystallography, cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM), and three-dimensional (3D) image reconstruction allowed describing its structure very precisely. The genome of this bacteriophage was completely sequenced, which opens the way for the use of many molecular techniques, such as site-specific mutagenesis, which was widely applied, for example, in investigating the functions of some essential T4 proteins. The phage-display method, which is commonly applied in bacteriophage modifications, was successfully used to display antigens (PorA protein, VP2 protein of vvIBDV, and antigens of anthrax and HIV) on T4's capsid platform. As first studies showed, the phage-display system as well as site-specific mutagenesis may also be used to modify interactions between phage particles and mammalian cells or to obtain phages infecting species other than the host bacteria. These may be used, among others, in the constantly developing bacteriophage therapy. All manipulations of this popular bacteriophage may enable the development of vaccine technology, phage therapy, and other branches of biological and medical science...'
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