The 9K31 Strela-1 (Russian: 9?31 «??????-1»; English: arrow) is a highly mobile, short-range, low altitude infra-red guided surface-to-air missile system. '9K31' is its GRAU designation. Its NATO reporting name is SA-9 'Gaskin'. Each TEL consists of two pairs of ready-to-fire 9M31 missiles mounted in boxes on either side of a turret on a BRDM-2 amphibious vehicle. The missiles used in this system were developed alongside the prolific Russian MANPADS 9K32M 'Strela-2' (NATO designation SA-7 'Grail') in the 1960s and first became operational in 1968. For more information on the related development see the SA-7 article.